|unknown till unknown|
|5. Pharaoh of the 2. Dynasty|
|Pharaonic names: |
|Horus: ||Seth-Peribsen (Serekh/Seth name instead)|
|Nebty: || |
|Golden Horus || |
Actually, while there is no real doubt about his existence, the sources of his name are rare and a little unusual. The clearest impression stems probably from an earthen jar seal from Peribsen's tomb (Tomb P at Abydos). Similar seals were discovered on a number of vessels made from sandstone, alabaster and porphyry and sometimes black schist. However, all those vessels stem from his tomb as well or from another site at Elephantine. Outside of those two discrete sites, there is just one clay seal with his name inside mastaba tomb K1 at Beil Khallaf.
When it comes to stelas, there are two dark gray granite ones bearing his name and of course, they are at his burial site, thus again indicating some localization. Those two tomb stelae are the reason why I said in the beginning, his name sources are a little unusual. Both stelae look rough, as if unfinished, but tool mark analysis and the fact, that inscriptions were already made, indicate, this was intentional. However, about the why, scholars still struggle.
And with that, the quality of sources degrades quickly. A cylinder of unknown provenance shows his name in a cartouche and gives also the epithet Merj-netjeru (beloved of the gods) which, both in its own rights, shows, that this cylinder originates from a much later date because the cartouche appears only two dynasties later in the royal symbolic and the writing of the -netjeru in the epithet is a little inconsistent with the use of the time. Another cylinder seal shows Peribsen's name without cartouche and the royal title Nisut-Bity (king of Lower and Upper Egypt) which had to be more of a claim than reality.
The Seth in Seth-Peribsen
Usually, pharaohs chose Horus, the falcon headed son of Osiris and Isis, as their patron deity. And this was a rule that strict, that we call this part of the royal titulary "Horus-name" up till today. You can see this in the Horus-whatever throne names which are thorough through all Egyptian history as long as pharaohs reigned at the Nile. Well, with two exceptions: Seth-Peribsen, one of them, chose Seth. Now, usually, the name of the pharaoh was written at that time in form of a Serekh, which was basically the Horus name over the stylized facade of the royal palace, thus indicating rulership. For Peribsen, we find insted the Seth-animal, which appears to be kind of a crossbreed between donkey and something with very little horns or very square ears. Nobody actually is sure, what it is. Above it usually there is a symbol consisting of two concentric circles. An sun, maybe. Or someone painted a target for arrow practice on the poor guy. No seriously, it is a sun symbol.
Nevertheless, Seth was back in the days quite popular, just like Horus. At the lifetime of Peribsen, Seth hadn't become the dark chaotic God as which he would spook later generations. And actually, while he is the only one using Seth in his Serekh, he is not the only king associating himself with this deity. The next one would be Seth Merybre, but he ruled during the 13th dynasty, quite a bit later (aboutish 1000 years later) and the names of the 19th dynasty pharaohs Seti I and Seti II are derived from Seth as well, but then, those pharoahs used Horus Seti I and Horus Seti II as Horus names.
As usual, unusual things lead to theories about which scholars can struggle for decades, sometimes centuries. Here are some of the ideas and my opinion about them:
The heritic pharaoh
The idea is, that Peribsen tried to invent a new monotheistic cult to replace the old religion. This theory was quite popular in the middle of the 20th century and is still well and alive even banished from it's rank as the mainstream theory.
First of all, Seth was part of the old religion. You can't replace a thing with itself. It just doesn't work because in the end, you have the same thing and people think you are an idiot. Which probably is not a good reputation for a king. So the maximum here would be, that the predominant priesthood of Horus was somewhat attacked by the king and the second biggest boy in the country, Seth and his priests. But even for this limited theory, there are some obstacles in the way. No records of any form show Peribsen ever ruled over Lower Egypt. All his name sources are in Upper Egypt. Which is basically the reason, why I consider the title Nisut-Bity, King of Lower and Upper Egypt, rather a claim than reality. But if he would have only ruled in Upper Egypt, he wouldn't have been able to impress a new primary cult on all Egypt in the first place. And even worse, after his death, he would be considered a heretic. Now, it is true, his name was erased from the king lists and the Seth animal on one of his tomb stelae was scratched by someone who tried to erase it as well, so there are hallmarks that he wasn't a popular guy. Some may add, that his tomb was already plundered during antique times, but then, the very same would be true for most royal tombs. So being plundered means technically nothing. And since at least till the 4th dynasty his burial cult was active, this ruckus happened rather on a political level than on a religious one. There wouldn't be a burial cult for a heretic, but we know and can assume very strongly for another priest, that they served during the time of the 4th dynasty exactly that burial cult. So, Peribsen was NOT considered a heretic. And with that, the "heretic pharaoh" theory goes down the gutter, it was anyway rather influenced by the Echnaton hype, archaeologists went through middle of the 20th century.
The name theory
This theory is mostly based on the name of Peribsen without any deity. It means "he who comes forth by THEIR will" or "His heart and will comes forth for THEM". The significant part is THEIR and THEM. Nowhere is anything written who those "thems" are, but it's definitively a plural. Which made some archaelogists think, without further evidence, that Peribsen maybe worshipped both, Seth and Horus on equal footing. For further support, they involve the later pharaoh Khasekhemwy who also used the a double titulary as ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt and therefore had Seth and Horus in his Serekh in some kind of kissing pose to each other. And by all means, earlier queens had titles like "she who is allowed to see Horus and Seth" and "she who carries Horus and Seth" and therefore, so the argument, Peribsen's Seth name is not a break of tradition.
Well, this is all quite nice, but ... well, actually, Khasekhemwy re-united Egypt again, so he was really ruler of both parts. Peribsen was not. And Khasekhemwy before he united Egypt wore a Horus only name. Therefore the argument, Khasekhemwy's name would be only a logical next step of what Peribsen started, fails here. Especially, since Peribsen's Serekh shows only Seth, not Horus. Actually, nobody knows whether the second (or third or fourth, or fifth) part enforcing that pluaral in Peribsen's name was Horus or another deity. By all means, according to the Egyptian mythology, Seth was brother to Osiris, Isis and Nephtys, the latter also his wife and mother of his child Anubis or as some accounts say, children as in Anubis and Thot. So, there is some list of other suspect deities able to enforce that plural. There is nothing really indicating such an equal footing of Horus and Seth in Peribsen's worshipping. The essential point is also, that Seth was a Lower Egyptian Deity, Peribsen ruled in Upper Egypt. Given, that this king made already a claim to both parts of Egypt with his title, using a Lower Egyptian patron deity makes political sense in a way, but not to push that one together with the Upper Egyptian Horus, because that would exactly achieve the opposite of what Peribsen could have wanted: Ressentiments from lower Egypt against him for putting his Upper Egyptian God on equal level with theit Numero Uno.
The Civil Not-War Theories
Some archaeologists claimed, Peribsen's time was a time of civil war and general misery for everyone and because he was declared as responsible for this misery, his name was cut out from the king lists. Actually, this theory doesn't explain anything about why Peribsen chose Seth, but since it is listed under theories for his name choice in so many books ... well, one has to please traditions, sometimes even if they don't make any sense?
So, la derniere cri in Egyptology is on this front, the claim, Egypt was peacefully divided. Which, as I already mentioned, when I wrote about Nynetjer, makes some sense because by area and given the topology, Egypt was hard to reign in difficult times by one ruler. It's a long stripe of land along a long river, which means, regardless where you have a palace, it will be the wrong place and your eyes and ears as in soldiers, envoys and officers will need weeks to go where the next crisis pops up. And as mentioned already before, this could have developed from a formal splitting into something real and would have, for several factors like competition and political claim reached at some point a real hostile level.
Neither the civil war not the not civil war theories explain anything about the Seth in Seth-Peribsen. Nothing, zilch! It is nice, that modern archaeologists point out, that mastaba tombs of high officials in Sakkara and Abydos are well preserved and dated for the whole time between Nynetjer and Khasekhemwy. I like well perserved mastabas as much as anybody who is interested in Egypt. The real problem is, those mastabas explain exactly nothing. They don't indicate there was no civil war, they would maybe indicate civil war didn't roll over Sakkara and Abydos too much. Given, that such a war would be more likely between Upper and Lower Egypt than just everywhere in the country, Abydos is too far away from the border to be reached anyway. The fact, that there is no Battle of Detroit in the US Civil War doesn't mean, there was no Civil War. A little bit more thinking is needed to understand, why a civil war wouldn't have reached Sakkara as well. Sakkara is the necropolis of Memphis. Technically it is almost as far away from the border as Abydos only to the other side. Again an example from the US Civil War: There was actually no Battle of Miami.
That leaves exactly one argument: The architecture, the religious rituals for kings and noblemen, the whole culture of the time is very similar in Abydos and Sakkara, which, as some egyptologists point out, would be prove there was a peaceful coexistence and things were quite statewide organized. Well, people in Miami and people in Detroit eat both burgers, do they? They have both Christian churches, graves have on both sides the symbol of the cross. To conclude from that, there was never a civil war, never trouble, is daring, very daring. At least. And none of this explains the Seth-part at all.
A little theory of my own
When sees a king a need to put a title on lands he doesn't own to his title list? In fact, history gave us some examples. Henry V claimed to be King of France, long before he conquered France. Salahadin signed as King of Jerusalem long before he got it. So did Richard III Lionheart and he never got it at all. And German emperors in 8th century laid similar claims on Denmark without even having intentions to conquer the North but to make clear, what could happen if those freaking Vikings wouldn't stop to ambush cities in Northern Germany.
Seth points to Lower Egypt. Seth as part of the titulary of an Upper Egyptian king is a claim. This claim can be for real or can be a warning. A warning means, there was already trouble. Maybe some kind of civil ruckus, maybe raiding. By all means, it can't have been too much because, well, the mastabas in Sakkara and Abydos witness, that no military action ended with the burning of an enemy's capital or something equally dramatic. Given, that military wasn't quite organized back then and there were no permanent troops, no standing army, no side was really prepared for a longer war anyway.
Now, what, if Peribsen's claim was real, if he meant it? We know, he didn't get through with it because if he had, Khasekhemwy couldn't have united Egypt because it would have been united already before his birth. So, in this case, Peribsen made a claim, but was unable to follow up. That would also mean, that, since in the next generation things went already a lot wilder and more hostile, Peribsen looked like a weak king, kind of the born loser king. So, the king lists were written later and based on older inscriptions. Actually, what was needed to keep Peribsen out of the king lists was not erasing. Not writing about him would have done the job as well. And why would people write about the loser king when they have already a winner on the throne?
On the behavioral side, Peribsen made a claim, didn't come through with it and with sinking popularity, there was no need to talk too much about him anymore. It's like a President with an extreme low rating who would for example focus on Mexico but forget the US. The real interesting point is, there was trouble at the border, the situation was already hostile and about to deterioate more over time. And what happens if he would be the father of an equally inept son or brother? Then history will get confusing because you end up with two pharaohs, nobody likes to speak about.
Now, this doesn't mean he didn't know who he was. Of course he did. The point in question is basically, which other names are connected to him. Pharoahs had a lot of names and since the writers of king lists weren't too sure how to read some of them, got even long time after their death some new ones. This opens of course a wide room for scholarly theories. Some egyptologists for example claim, Peribsen would be identical to Sekhemib-Perenmaat. Which would be in my opinion a little problematic because most of the seals of Sekhemib were found in the entrance area of Peribsen's tomb, but not further in. That would indicate, Sekhemib buried Peribsen, which makes it almost impossible, that they could be the same person unless Peribsen buried himself, sealed the tomb and went then in again through the sealed and rock filled entrance tunnel to lay finally down. Even more problematic is, that no inscription and no seal was ever found, that would show both names together and thus indicate an identity. So, technically, it's not a theory, in a scientific sense, it is rather something popping out of the blue.
However, similar use of typographic styles could indicate, Sekhemib and Peribsen were related. Which archaeologists also try to hand on the fact, that their complete names have some syllably in common. Well, err, no offense, but the next king after a dead one was usuallly his son or if he had none, a brother. I guess, we can take that as "kind of related", can we? Which makes the so-called "relationship-theory" very likely in fact. Just like the thory, things tend rather to fall down than up or the theorem, there will be next year a new reality show on TV. I mean, technically, we can sell things that will happen almost inevitable also as good future predictions that way.
Now, nobody in the 2nd dynasty is complete without being at least once identified as the mysterious Wadjenes. It"s obviously some kind of posthumous status symbol for second-dynasty-kings. But lets keep in mind, this was a syllabil based writing. Per-Ib-Sen and Wadj-Sen are hard to mess up because a closer look would show the third syllabil in Per-Ib-Sen. So, maybe someone had a sloppy handwriting, maybe it was a hard to read papyrus, but to miss an additional sign, when there are anyway only three, that's a little tough.
And we have another suspect: Pharaoh Senedj! The reason why some egyptologists think so, is easy. Both names appear in the tomb of the now several times mentioned priest Shery. He was the overseer of all Wab-priests of Peribsen in the necropolis, Senedj founded. The problem is, the inscription is clear. Since Peribsen couldn't be buried before the necropolis was founded, Senedj had to come first. And since the names are clearly separated, the also couldn't be the same person.
So at the end of the egyptologist's identity crisis, it appears, Peribsen was just Peribsen.
Now, some archeologists seem to think, Egypt was divided at Peribsen's time. Which makes me wonder, what gave the clue? Maybe the existence of a second autonome line of Memphite kings? But other scholars believe in a theory, Egypt wasn't actually divided at the time. Which supplies us with some spare kings, does it? Well, it's never a bad thing to have a king in spare like a vice president for example.
But now serious. The reason some believe, Egypt wasn't divided hangs on exactly one piece of stone: The Cairo Stone shows in line IV a half destroyed Serekh, but one can, with a lot of imagination, recognize the legs. Whatever it was, it had legs, so it was no palace. And it had four legs, so it wasn't a bird like Horus. Now, the idea is, that the only royal crest animal with four legs was the Seth animal. And since Peribsen was the only one, they know, who used the Seth reference, this had to be Seth-Peribsen. Daring, without even one hieroglyph and only some barely recognizable legs left. Now, first of all, the Cairo Stone is part of the Annal Stone and it was written during the 5th dynasty. Some centuries after Peribsen lived. So there is some chance, someone messed it up because the writers back then did the same as our archaeologists today and compiled data from barely readable material. Only they did it without all the technical toys, they relied on what could be recognized with the unarmed eye. The result is for example the spooky Wadjenes nobody can say how he appeared in the lists.
But even if they were right, Seth was mostly a Lower Egyptian deity. So while Peribsen was maybe the only one with a Seth reference in his name in Upper Egypt and we know, he was strong there, all except one of his name sources where found in Upper Egypt. In Lower Egypt, Seth would have beeen more of a must. One forgives me the butting in on the behavioral side, but it was a neccessity. The more hostile the situation between Upper and Lower Egypt became the more the need for an identification of 'us' and 'them' would arise. Upper Egypt would go for Horus (except for Peribsen of course) as documented in the king's names. The lower Egyptian rulers would go for Seth. And since in the end, Lower Egypt succumbed to Upper Egypt when Khasekhemwy reunited the country, it is not really surprising, there are no traces of the losers of this conflict left. The chances, there were more kings with Seth names in Lower Egypt are quite high, but the chance Peribsen was king of all of Egypt is quite a lousy one to bet on.
Actually, Peribsen founded a new administrative centre called the white house of treasure and a royal residence called protection of Nubty not far from Kom Ombo (Nubty is the ancient Egyptian name for Naqqada). Titles were changed from "something of Egypt" to "something of Upper Egypt" for sealers, overseers of all kinds, basically all higher officials, to reflect the situation of a divided Egypt. All of that shows of course, Egypt was actually divided.
Interesting is, that Peribsen's and Sekhemib's time show a clear and well identified hierarchy which would indicate a well ordered state and administration. So whatever his failures may have been, bad adminsitration appears to be none of them.
Notable during Peribsen's reign is a busy construction activity. Actually, he founded several royal residences and even whole cities which would raise to some economical influence. Interesting here is Huj-setjet, the City of the Asians, which indicates by it's name some immigration via the Sinai which means through Lower Egypt. Notable is also an inscription on a stone vessel "ini-setjet" which is translated by most egyptologists as "tribute of the people of Sethroe". I admit, I don't follow here entirely. "ini;" means tribute or sometimes tax. !quot;Setjet" on the other hand refers either to the city of Sethroe in Lower Egypt or to "Asian". Given, that Peribsen founded Huj-setjet, the city of the Asians, which for sure wasn't named that way because he had there white Caucasians from England settle down, could it possibly be, his new immigrants from Asia paid a tribute to the king? Just such an idea? Because if he would have founded a cult centre for Seth in Lower Egypt as some Egyptologists think, he still wouldn't get tribute from a Lower Egyptian city, he would pay for his foundation there. Of course, it doesn't help the theory, that no cult center with Peribsen's seals all over it was found ever in Sethroe. Since Sethroe was the capital of the same-named 14th nome of Lower Egypt, there was some digging done already and archaeologists found a lot, but no cult centre Peribsen may could have founded. So my bet is, setjet is the same setjet as in Huj-setjet and that was the city payinf tribute or taxes to him.
Also notable is a number of clay seal impressions that prove, several deities were worshipped in Upper Egypt under Peribsen's rule. The list includes, aside of Seth the deities Ash, Horus, Nekhbet, Min, Bastet and Kherty. Which in fact gives us quite a nice mix of originally Upper and Lower Egptian deities. Bastet, Kherty and of course Seth and his sister-wife Nekhbet appear to have been the strongest in the delta while Horus, Min and to a degree Ash were Upper Egyptian deities. Which of course doesn't say there was no trouble, only for deities the border was permeable. As anywhere and at any other time else. An interesting detail is the increasing number of sun depictions above the Horus and Seth pictures of the time, indicating, that, while Ra, the sun-god wasn't invented yet, the cult was on the way. Two generations later, under Khasekhemwy, Ra would officially enter the stage and do, what freshly invented Gods do: Propagate a states union.
Nobody can even estimate how long Peribsen ruled. For sure, it had to be some years given the number of religious festivities he participated in. On an economical level, Upper Egypt was strong, maybe stronger than ever. The founding of a new city indicates, capital was available and the founding of several cities makes this a lot of wealth at the king's disposal. Add to that a whole list of new royal residences, extensive construction in older cities and the new immigrants from Asia, which were treated as new citizens rather than enemies, it appears as if Peribsen's economy had brought work and income to everyone, so much, that Upper Egypt needed additional workforce from the outside. Admittedly, there are no extraordinary leaps in technology or architecture, as far as we know from the limited archaeological record. So it was more a time of traders, builders and creators but of inventors. But the economy was in a boom as it appears. Which, funny as it sounds, makes unpopularity even more a likely reason why Peribsen disappeared before the king lists got hold of him. When people have money and jobs, when they don't have to worry about food on the table, they have time to come to the weirdest political misconclusions. The USA had under Bush jr also 4.6% unemployment and were scavaging the world for more qualified workforce. Still, unpopular wars made Bush unpopular and to give the masses jobs never counted for anything. Obama's unemployment numbers were as of yet between 200% and 300% higher than Bush's numbers, people don't know how to bring food on the table, millions and millions depend on food lines and still, Obama is more popular than Bush ever was. If you compare that to Peribsen, who did a good job on the economy and was granted oblivion by his grateful subjects for that, it appears somehow logical. Well, not really, lets rather call it familiar.
The implication has to be clear. The next pharaoh of Upper Egypt came with some mortgage on the unpopularity of his dead daddy. Would be Sekhemib more of Bush, keeping the economy rolling and being cursed by those he gave food? Or more like Obama, full of empty promises and wild dreams that in reality would leave an incredible mess? When Peribsen died, his country was well, if maybe not as well as at his best peak times since he had ruled at least a number of years and things tend to fluctuate a little over the time of years. But time urged for a change in politics. People had to eat, now they wanted more ... and as usual, they had not the faintest idea, what "more" could be.
No, that is no typo, I used a plural here because additional to the main burial in Umm el-Qa'ab near Abdoy exists a second tomb, a kenotaph, further north. Since that one is more relevant to Khasekhemwy, I will concentrate here on Tomb P, Peribsen's actual burial site. The tomb is quite ordinary in construction and with 52 by 43 feet small, compared to other royal tombs in the area. The basic model followed that of the tomb of Djer (1st Dynasty) and is similar to the king's palace in the outlines as it comprises basically three nested structures. The main burial chamber is with 24 by 9.5 feet the biggest room and constructed with mud bricks, reed and wood. On the walls to the North, East and West, nine small storage chambers held what the king would may need in his afterlife. The storage chambers are connected one to each other, thus allowing more or less to go around the main chamber. To the South, lies a third room, an elongated room designed as antechampber. The entrance is a passageway between this ensemble and the outer wall. Examinations by the DAIK, the Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut (German Archeological Institute) showed, this tomb was built in a hurry. The whole construction was done in one single phase, there is nothing of the change of plans and extension to original building phases that can be observed in other tombs. Tomb P was sketched down and built as it was planned without any changes during construction. The walls are plastered sloppy and rough and the whole construction collapsed several times. Then, during the Middle Kingdom, Peribsen's tomb was restored at least twice together with other surrounding burial monuments.
The tomb had been plundered already in antiquity as most tombs in Abydos and whole Egypt at that. Still, stone vessels and clay jars which were obviously of little interest to the robbers, remained and were found by archaeologists at the beginning of the 20th century when the excavation started. Some of the vessels had copper coated rims, similar to those found in the tomb of Khasekhemwy. Which shows, at least a little progress was made, because this was a new development in Peribsen's time. Aside of vessels from Peribsen'e era, also vessels from the time of earlier pharaohs, namely Raneb and Nynetjer (probably father and grandfather of Peribsen) were found as well. Some bracelets and beards, obviously missed by the otherwise quite thorough grave robbers, and a small collection of tools made from copper almost complete the findings already. Some especially interesting items were a silver needle with the name of king Hor Aha on it and of course the afore mentioned seals of Sekhemib in the antechamber but neither the main burial chamber not the storage chambers. Outside of the tomb entrance the mentioned tomb stelae were found, quite in the usual position for a tomb of a first or second dynasty king. Remember, also those stelae were unusual rough and probably made under some time pressure.
Outside, a little more than maybe half a mile distant, an enclosure made from mud bricks was found. Seals of Peribsen with his Serekh were found near the entrance and at the destroyed offering shrine. Today, in a common misunderstanding, this site is referenced to as "Middle Fort". Since this enclosure was next to Khasekhemwy's burial enclosure it was often wrongfully connected to this later king. The enclosure is with 354 by 180 feet much larger than the tomb itself, but contained only some cult buildings. Three entrances from East, South and North lead in the complex. The shrine was located in the south-east-corner and was with 40 by 32 feet relative small in comparison to other sites. Originally, the shrine comprised three small chapels. As usual with 2nd dynasty tombs, no subsidiary buryings were found since the practice of human sacrifices had been given up already since Qua'a. Or his successor or his successor or ... well, actually, the first tomb definitively without subsidiary burials and as definitively linked to exactly one king is Peribsen's because Qua'a had still twenty-six of his courtiers around him in death and after that, all tombs are either not found or not clearly linked to one king. So, human sacrifice was the past ... since yesterday at least.
Egyptologists have discussed a lot about the two stelae and why they look so unfinished but obviously were finished because the inscriptions were already on them. Egyptologists discuss obviously a lot about those details. But looking at the greater picture, in this case the whole tomb, appearances change. Now by all means, this thing, even built in a hurry, wasn't just smashed together in a week ... even not with application of a lot of pressure. This took with the tools of the time some years to build. And usually, pharaohs started to plan for their burial the day after coronation, some even earlier. So what we actually see here, on a behavioral level, is a project considered very important, planned small and executed small because there was a knowledge behind it, the knowledge of death. Whoever planned this, and we can assume, it was Peribsen himself, he knew, he wouldn't rule for decades like some of his predecessors. He knew, he would have no time to build a bigger one, he knew he would need it earlier. And still, in the end, even the smaller projecr ran out of time. We can see that on the compromises. The step to smoothen out those stelae was skipped, the inscriptions were cut in the still relativ rough stone. The plaster in the main chamber was put on the wall in a hurry and without even enough time to dry out completely before the painters went to work. The nearer construction came to the end, the more the pressure becomes visible. So, despite all economic success as ruler, something else with him was not right. He ruled at least several years and he knew, he would die soon, therefore the hectic. This dismisses any sudden accident ideas, this leaves only one explanation: Pharaoh Peribsen was already a dying man, suffering from a disease that was already known in his time as deadly. And he planned basically his own funeral date based on the prognosis his healers could give him. Which is the reason why things were narrow in the end and plaster was just splashed on the walls in his tomb. So what would be a sickness that kills over years? Leukemia, some other cancers and some genetic disorders come to mind. True, the Egyptians didn't know about genetics, but they knew about those diseases at least what can be learned in an empiric way. But it couldn't be something so rare, only a handful cases appear on the whole world. It had to be something frequent enough to make the signs on the wall clear to the king, who planned and acted based on the knowledge, his time was limited.
In a way, his tomb tells us more about the person Peribsen than his sparsely documented life. Sick people with power are often driven. Determined to write their names in the history books in only just a few years. Ready to risk and to invest and sometimes even to make big claims because they don't have the time to wait for a better chance. And thus, at the end, in the main burial chamber of Tomb P, all comes together. The Seth name, the hasty way of burying a king, the founding of cities and the big building rage that led to the construction of at least four new royal residences. And, also noteworthy, not one documented cult centre. What shimmers through here, is a driven man, probably bitter, quarreling with fate and even probably the gods themselves. Which would explain his ambivalence in favorite deities beyond the mere political implication, the lack of Seth, his alleged patron god, in his tomb, basically everything. In a way, it gives us a glimpse at his pain and his hopelessness, but then, also on the strength that was behind his projects. And as usual, a driven man is not a popular man, be he as successful as Peribsen was in many aspects. After he was dead, he was probably not only forgotten, he was probably slandered by those he gave work and food and for sure, he didn't get what he truely wanted, immortality in the books of history.
|Tue, May 17, 2016|
12:00 AM CT
Daniel Lee Siebert
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|Fri, Dec 18, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
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|Thu, Oct 22, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
Gerard John Schaefer
The allegedly most prolific Florida Serial Killer, "Killer Cop" Gerard Schaefer, finally also made his way into out collection.
|Thu, Sep 24, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
Royal Russel Long
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|Mon, Aug 17, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
The Wyoming Rodeo Murders
A story of misperceptions and midnless cabinet cleaning by police authorities that ended up with someone getting away with at least two murders on young women. Now in our collection.
|Wed, Jul 15, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
Joseph Vacher, the French Ripper
Now new in our collection: Joseph Vacher, the French Ripper. The first case, blood spatter analysis was used in a court trial world wide!
|Sat, Jun 20, 2015|
12:00 AM CST
No new addition in June
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|Sat, May 16, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
The Beauty Queen Killer
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|Thu, Apr 16, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
Burton W. Abbott
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|Mon, Mar 16, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
Darren Deon Vann
Ha is basically the usual garden variety strangler case if it wouldn't be for the early warnings statistical data cretated about serial killer activity in Gary/Indiana. Now he is in our collection.
|Wed, Mar 4, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
Due to technical problems, the March article was up late. Take my apologies for this glitch.
|Mon, Feb 16, 2015|
12:00 AM CT
Affaire of the Poisons
We have added the infamous Affaire of the Poisons to our collection. With more than 80 offenders, it breaks a little the format, but well, it's one of the biggest cases of "organized" crime ever, so how can we let it out?
|Mon, Dec 8, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
Once he made the FBI Ten Most Wanted list, now nobody remembers the case anymore. Nevertheless, the father of all allegedly schizophrenic serial killers has entered our collection.
|Fri, Nov 7, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
The Trailside Killer
David Joseph Carpenter has now become also part of the Serial Killer Collection ... complete with profile.
|Tue, Oct 7, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
The Vampire of Duesseldorf
Peter Kuerten aka The Vampire of Duesseldorf roamed the city at the River Rhine for more than two years and left behind a trail of bodies-
|Fri, Sep 12, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
The Grim Sleeper
Lonnie Franklin aka The Grim Sleeper has been added to our serial killer collection
|Thu, Aug 14, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
Michael Lee Lockhart
... and with a little delay, another serial made it into the serial killer collection. Michael Lee Lockhart, not so much interesting for his "achievements" but because his case appears as if he became a psychopath only after a serious head injury.
|Tue, Aug 12, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
A Game of Daggers
Diane's new novel A GAME OF DAGGERS is now available at Amazon for Kindle. A story of murder, mayhem and political intrigue set up in the year of the Lord 1096.
Pope Urban II has called for a crusade, but this news has yet to reach Cornwall. And people there have anyway to deal with other problems from storms to wreckers on their coast and when some murdered men are discovered on the beach, nobody guesses, this is only the prelude to much greater events coming to the so remote shores ...
|Sat, Jul 5, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
Ivan Hill, as the first of the many serial killers, who haunted Los Angeles in the 80s and 90s, is now added to our serial killer collection.
|Sun, Jun 8, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
Raya and Sakina
The famous Egyptian serial killers have become part of our collection. And as so often, things are not as simple as the urban legend tries to tell us.
|Thu, May 1, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
The infamous Danish baby farmer has been added to our Serial Killer Collection.
|Thu, May 1, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
Pharaoh Djoser added to the Egyptian Collection
I finally came around to add a new pharaoh to our collection: Djoser, 1st Pharoh of the 3rd Dynasty.
|Fri, Apr 4, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
The Green River Killer
This month, we added Gary Ridgway to our serial killer collection, a case, not so much interesting for the profiling but for the lessons about case organization to be learned from it.
|Tue, Mar 4, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
The "Manson Family&quo; has been added to our serial killer collection. Especially interesting for those who think, brain washing isn't possible.
|Fri, Feb 7, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
Hans van Zon
Dutch serial killer Hans van Zon joined our serial killer collection. Not entirely voluntarily though.
|Mon, Jan 6, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
The Syracuse Dungeon Master
John T. Jamelske aka the Syracuse Dungeon Master has been added to our Serial Killer Collection. While not a seria killer but a serial rapist, Jamelske represents a similar psychopathology as some OCD type serial killers, for example Dahmer and therefore is some valuable object for studies.
|Thu, Jan 2, 2014|
12:00 AM CT
The last of the 2nd dynasty pharaohs, the man who re-united Egypt, is now also in the Egyptian collection.
|Thu, Dec 12, 2013|
12:00 AM CT
Pharaoh Sekhemib added to the Egyptian Collection
I finally came around to add Pharaoh Sekhemib to the collection, the sixth of the 2nd Dynasty. So, with some luck, I can finish this year the 2nd dynsty, only one, Khasekhemwy is left.
|Tue, Dec 10, 2013|
12:00 AM CT
The Riha disappearance
In 1969, Dr. Thomas Riha disappeared and in the subconsequent series of events, Gloria Tannenbaum was arrested for forgery and under suspicion of two other homicides. She plead not guilty by reason of insanity and got away with it. The case has now been added to our serial killer collection.
|Mon, Nov 4, 2013|
12:00 AM CT
Richard N. Clarey jr.
Clarey is one of the lesser known serial killers, skirting the definition a little. Still, for some reasons an interesting case.
|Wed, Oct 2, 2013|
12:00 AM CT
Now in the collection: William E. Cosden
A garden variety sexual predator, notable only because his existence shows, how wrong the idea of 1 monster at 1 time in 1 area is.